Developing an agenda and a roadmap
for achieving full digital language
equality in Europe by 2030

Languages under Investigation in ELE

If you want to provide feedback about one of the languages under investigation in the European Language Equality project, please get in touch with us.

LanguageEU Member State languageNumber of speakers in EuropeEndangered languagePrimary informantSecondary informantsMETA-NET White PaperELE White Paper Update
BulgarianYes7,570,230NoInstitute for Bulgarian Language “Prof. Lyubomir Andreychin” (IBL)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Bulgarian (2012)work in progress
CroatianYes6,590,290NoUniversity of Zagreb (FFZG)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Croatian (2012)work in progress
CzechYes13,295,420NoCharles University (CUNI)Institute of the Czech Language of the Czech Academy of SciencesCzech (2012)work in progress
DanishYes5,563,120NoUniversity of Copenhagen (UCPH)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Danish (2012)work in progress
DutchYes23,918,840NoDutch Language Institute (INT)University of Antwerp (UANTW)Dutch (2012)work in progress
EnglishYes263,835,370NoUniversity of Sheffield (USFD)Dubin City University (DCU)English (2012)work in progress
EstonianYes1,128,990NoUniversity of Tartu (UTART)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Estonian (2012)work in progress
FinnishYes5,682,630NoUniversity of Helsinki (UHEL)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Finnish (2012)work in progress
FrenchYes131,992,030NoFrench National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)French (2012)work in progress
GermanYes150,888,580NoGerman Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI)University of Vienna (UVIE)German (2012)work in progress
GreekYes12,399,170NoResearch Centre “Athena” (ILSP)University of Cyprus (UCY)Greek (2012)work in progress
HungarianYes12,177,260NoHungarian Research Centre for Linguistics (NYTK)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Hungarian (2012)work in progress
IrishYes1,176,730NoDubin City University (DCU)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Irish (2012)work in progress
ItalianYes65,019,690NoFondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Italian (2012)work in progress
LatvianYes1,933,100NoInstitute of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Latvia (IMCS)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Latvian (2012)work in progress
LithuanianYes2,793,100NoInstitute of the Lithuanian Language (LKI)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Lithuanian (2012)work in progress
MalteseYes485,110NoUniversity of Malta (UM)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Maltese (2012)work in progress
PolishYes39,415,080NoPolish Academy of Science (IPIPAN)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Polish (2012)work in progress
PortugueseYes11,787,500NoUniversity of Lisbon (FCULisbon)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Portuguese (2012)work in progress
RomanianYes20,776,510NoRomanian Academy (ICIA)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Romanian (2012)work in progress
SlovakYes7,174,580NoSlovak Academy of Sciences (JULS)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Slovak (2012)work in progress
SloveneYes2,195,790NoJozef Stefan Institute (JSI)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Slovene (2012)work in progress
SpanishYes67,144,190NoBarcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC)University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)Spanish (2012)work in progress
SwedishYes12,947,670NoRoyal Institute of Technology (KTH)Swedish (2012)work in progress
AlbanianNo1,680,700NoEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
Alsatian¹No600,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
BasqueNo536,000NoUniversity of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)European Language Equality Network (ELEN)Basque (2012)work in progress
BosnianNo2,553,580NoEurescom
Carpathian-German²No4,690NoEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
Carpato-RusynNo135,810NoEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
Catalan, ValencianNo8,973,480NoBarcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC)University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)Catalan (2012)work in progress
Faroese¹⁰No76,587NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Frisian (Western, Northern, Eastern)No883,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)European Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
GalicianNo2,335,000NoUniversity of Vigo (UVIGO)European Language Equality Network (ELEN)Galician (2012)work in progress
IcelandicNo404,683NoÁrni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies (SAM)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Icelandic (2012)work in progress
LatgalianNo200,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
LezghinNoNoEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
LuxembourgishNo510,900NoLuxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)work in progress
Macedonian¹¹ ¹²No1,553,203NoEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
Meskhetian³No200NoEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
MirandeseNo15,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)European Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
MoldoviansNoNoEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
Norwegian (Bokmål, Nynorsk)No5,254,060NoLanguage Council of Norway (LCNOR)European Federation of National Institutes for Languages (EFNIL)Norwegian (Bokmål) (2012); Norwegian (Nynorsk) (2012)work in progress
OccitanNo218,310NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)European Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
PlattdeutschNo90,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
Réunion CreoleNo484,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
SerbianNo10,025,456NoUniversity of BelgradeSerbian (2012)
SicilianNo4,700,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
Southern ItalianNo5,700,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
Tornedalian FinnishNo30,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
TurkishNo3,905,040NoEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
VenetianNo3,850,000NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
WalserNo22,780NoEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
WelshNo562,000NoBangor University (BNGR)European Language Equality Network (ELEN)Welsh (2012)work in progress
AragoneseNo30,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
ArbereshNo100,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
Aromanian/ArmanNo191,000YesEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)European Language Equality Network (ELEN)
AsturianNo560,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
BretonNo206,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
CimbrianNo2,230,500YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
CornishNo600YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
EmilianNo440,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
Franco ProvencalNo227,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
FriulianNo600,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)European Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
GalloNo195,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
GrikoNo500YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
Indigenous Languages in GuyaneNo5,180YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
JerriaisNo18,700YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
KarelianNo5,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
KashubianNo107,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)European Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
LadinNo31,000YesEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
LigurianNo148,560YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
LombardNo3,903,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
ManxNo1,660YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
MochenoNo1,900YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
PicardNo700,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
PiedmonteseNo700,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
RomagnolNo180,100YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
RomaniNo3,755,600YesEuropean Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
Saami (North, South, Inari, Skolt, Kildin, Pite, Lule)No22,430YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
Sardinian
No1,200,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)European Civil Society Platform for Multilingualism (ECSPM)
Scottish GaelicNo57,400YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
Sorbian (Lower, Upper)No19,970YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
TatarNo20,550YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
Võro (Seto, Mulgi, Tarto)No87,000YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)
YiddishNo10,977YesEuropean Language Equality Network (ELEN)

Note on sources:
The numbers of speakers were mostly derived from Ethnologue, an annual reference publication that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. However, Ethnologue does not cover all of the languages listed above. We collected the missing numbers (see footnotes) with the help of the language experts from our consortium.

¹OLCA (2014). Le dialecte en chiffres.
²provided by an expert from FUEN
³Wikipedia (2021). Meskhetian Turks.
⁴Region Bretagne (2018). Enquête socio-linguistique : qui parle les langues de Bretagne aujourd’hui?.
⁵provided by Griko speaking community
⁶Council of Europe (2016). Romani in Europe.
⁷provided by a Saami expert from ELEN
⁸provided by William Cisilino, Vice chair of NPLD
⁹provided by Jón Már Halldórsson, skra.is Registers Iceland and Registers Iceland (2018). Hvar búa Íslendingar í útlöndum?
¹⁰Statistics Faroe Islands (2021). Population and Wikipedia (2021). Færøyinger
¹¹the numbers about the Macedonian speakers in Greece were provided by members of NPLD
¹²Wikiwand. Σλαβομακεδόνες